The fourth reason to study statistics is to be an informed consumer. Whatever the case, your design should follow your information gathering and synthesis. Understanding exactly where the change came from or where the barriers to change reside, gives you the opportunity to adjust your program to take advantage of or combat those factors.
In both of the above illustrations, the statement is made that they should be theoretically treated as ordinal data. If you are doing a study that requires input from homeless persons, you are very likely going to need to go and find the respondents personally. How complex will the questions be?
To summarize, the five reasons to study statistics are to be able to effectively conduct research, to be able to read and evaluate journal articles, to further develop critical thinking and analytic skills, to act as an informed consumer, and to know when you need to hire outside statistical help.
The questions you want to ask are going to have multiple parts. Exactly how the measurement is carried out depends on the type of variable involved in the analysis. Who is the respondent in your study? How important is the program context — the way staff, participants, and others treat one another, the general philosophy of the program, the physical setting, the organizational culture?
An individual with an IQ of 70 does not have exactly half of the intelligence of an individual with an IQ of This issue may come up in a single-group design as well.
Questionnaires require that your respondents can read. It discusses in more detail the key steps to follow when planning and undertaking an evaluation and how to answer evaluation research questions using different evaluation research designs.
Now many a student may by saying to themselves: Parametric means that it meets certain requirements with respect to parameters of the population for example, the data will be normal--the distribution parallels the normal or bell curve.
Interaction of selection procedures and the program or intervention. In memory experiments, the dependent variable is often the number of items correctly recalled. To do well in statistics one must develop and use formal logical thinking abilities that are both high level and creative.
Given this, the material that follows is meant only as broad guidelines. The steps are in the first sentence of this paragraph. In reality, the two jobs have approximately the same amount of absenteeism.
The fifth reason to have a working knowledge of statistics is to know when you need to hire a statistician. The first reason is to be able to effectively conduct research. For example, it does not make sense to add Social Security numbers to get a third person.
In an evaluation, your program or intervention is the independent variable. The term control group comes from the attempt to control outside and other influences on the dependent variable. The study of statistics will serve to enhance and further develop these skills.Each scale of measurement has certain properties which in turn determines the appropriateness for use of certain statistical analyses.
The four scales of measurement are nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio.
The ratio scale of measurement is the most informative scale. It is an interval scale with the additional property that its zero position indicates the. Research Methods is a text by Dr. Christopher L.
Heffner that focuses on the basics of research design and the critical analysis of professional research in the social sciences from developing a theory, selecting subjects, and testing subjects to performing statistical analysis and writing the research report.
Measurement Operational Definitions Numbers and Precision Scales of Measurement Nominal Scale measurement for a variable can determine the most appropriate type of statistical analysisof the data. Scales of Measurement Nominal Scale There has been some disagreement among experts whether a nominal scale should even be.
II. Measurement Scales and Statistical Tests. One of the primary purposes of classifying variables according to their level or scale of measurement is to facilitate.
Our final type of measurement scales, Ratio scales, dohave a fixed zero point. Not only are numbers or units on the scale equal over all levels of the scale, but there is also a meaningful zero point which allows for the interpretation of ratio comparisons.
Time is an example of a ratio measurement scale.Download